Do dividends matter for investors? What are the benefits of dividends? The astronomical growth in the stock price of some companies that do not pay a dividend has led some investors to believe that dividends do not matter. For instance, take a look at Amazon (AMZN). The company does not pay a dividend, and arguably the stock keeps going up in anticipation of more future growth. Some investors have then concluded that dividends don’t matter.
However, the short answer is “Yes, dividends matter for investors.” There are distinct benefits of dividends to investors. In aggregate, dividend-paying stocks provide higher returns with lower volatility than stocks that do not pay a dividend. Dividends are a return of cash to shareholders. Further, dividends have provided nearly 40% of total return over long periods. Some investors also rely on dividends for income. So, dividends have benefits for investors.
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What Is A Dividend?
Dividends are typically cash distributions that public companies pay out periodically from their earnings to shareholders. Most companies pay dividends quarterly in the U.S. Some companies pay dividends monthly, and a few pay dividends bi-annually or annually. It is much more common for a European company to pay a dividend bi-annually or annually.
Dividends are a type of income that shareholders receive for each share of stock that they own. For example, an investor holds 100 shares of Company A. Let’s assume that Company A pays a dividend of $0.10 per share. This fact means that the investor receives $10 in cash.
Some companies also pay stock dividends. A few companies pay both cash and stock dividends. An excellent example is Tootsie Roll (T.R.), which pays a cash dividend of $0.36 per share and a 3% stock dividend annually.
A few companies pay special dividends, which are much more infrequent and can be paid at any time. For example, Costco (COST) is a company that pays a special dividend every few years. Before COVID-19, there were a few companies that paid an annual special dividend. One example of this was Cracker Barrel Old Country Store (CBRL). But the number of companies cutting or suspending their dividends due to the coronavirus pandemic reduced this list.
Regardless of the type of dividend, dividends are set and approved by a company’s board of directors and the shareholders.
A Brief History of Dividends
1602 – 1800 – Reportedly, the first recorded public company to pay a regular dividend was the Dutch East India Company, formed in Holland in 1602 with a monopoly on the spice trade with India. The monopoly supported hefty dividend payments. In the early years, the company paid dividends as high as 75%, but over the first 15 years, the dividend average was 25%. In it’d almost 200 years of existence, the dividend payment average about 18% annually.
1661 – The British East Indian Company announced its first dividend of 20% paid in 1662. The company traces its founding back to 1599.
1684 – The Hudson Bay Company was probably the first company in North America to pay a dividend. The first dividend was paid to shareholders 14 years after the company was formed in 1670. The dividend was 50% of the par value of the stock.
1781 – In the U.S., the Bank of North America was chartered in 1781 in Philadelphia. It started paying a 4.5% dividend after six months. Over the next 100 years, shareholders received on average 9.4% dividend yields.
1784 – 1791 – The Bank of New York paid a 3% semi-annual dividend.
1812 – 1860 – Textile mills in the U.S. paid dividends.
1815 – In the U.S., York Water Company (YORW) starts its streak of consecutive dividend payments. The company has over 200 years of paying a dividend. It is also the oldest publicly traded utility in the country.
1836 – Railroad companies issued preferred stocks. This special class of stock was used to raise capital and pay dividends. From 1843 – 1850, a handful of preferred stocks paid dividends, with some in the range of 10% – 12%.
1840 – In the U.K., most railroad stocks were paying dividends of at least 6%.
1865 – 1900 – Most manufacturing companies were paying a dividend driven by rapid population growth. Textile firms paid a dividend of almost 8% on average per year.
1882 – The predecessor of Exxon Mobil (XOM), Standard Oil, starts paying a dividend. Both Exxon and Mobil were spun out of John D. Rockefeller’s oil monopoly. The two companies merged back together in 1999.
1885 – A few short years later, Eli Lilly (LLY) started paying a dividend. The company has paid a consecutive dividend for 115 years.
1885 – Consolidated Edison (E.D.), another long-time dividend payer, also started paying a dividend in 1885. The utility traces its roots back to the New York Gas Light Company, founded in 1823. Consolidated Edison grew by providing electricity to New York City and the surrounding metro area.
2003 – Fast forward to modern times, and Microsoft (MSFT) starts paying a dividend.
2011 – Apple starts paying a dividend.
As a final note, in the U.S., dividend yields averaged about 5% from 1871 to 1982. The bottom of the bear market in that year and changes in investment outlook, creation of the 401(k) plan in 1980, proliferation of tax-deferred savings, and lower taxes on capital gains versus dividends pushed the average dividend yield down from roughly 5% to about 2.5% from 1983 to 2010. It hit a low of about 1.1% in 2000. Today, the average dividend yield is even lower at about 2%. In general, equity prices have grown faster than dividends since 1983, causing a drop in average dividend yield. That said, it is clear why dividends matter to investors over their history. Both investors and companies understood the benefits of dividends for essentially the inception of the idea. Dividends provided a substantial part of the total return in the past.
Types of Dividends
- Regular Cash Dividends – In the U.S. typically paid quarterly. Some companies do pay monthly, semi-annually, or annually. The regular cash dividend is paid out on a dividend per share basis.
- Stock Dividends – Paid in stock of the company. This is a rarer occurrence than a cash dividend. Note that stock dividends can dilute existing shareholders.
- Special Dividends – An irregular cash or stock dividend. This type of dividend is usually paid periodically from excess capital. A special dividend can also be paid when a company conducts a major financial transaction such as a merger, acquisition, or divesture. A special dividend can be a major benefit for investors from the context of yield and total returns.
Basics of Dividends
A dividend is paid to shareholders from net profits. The company usually retains earnings to fund ongoing operations. The remaining cash is operating cash flow or operating earnings in some terminology. Part of this cash flow is used to fund capital expenditures. The cash that remains is referred to as free cash flow, or ‘FCF.’ Free cash flow can be used to pay the debt, pay a dividend, conduct a share repurchase, or a combination of all three.
Companies can even pay dividends when there are insufficient profits by using long-term debt or cash on the balance sheet. This may be done to maintain a long-term track record of paying a dividend. Using debt to pay a dividend may also be done when there is a short-term decline in earnings or cash flow for a temporary reason. However, over the long term, a company’s earnings and cash flow must cover the dividend payment for the dividend to be sustainable.
A dividend payment has four parts: an announcement or declaration date, an ex-dividend date, a record date, and a payment date.
Announcement or Declaration Date
The announcement or declaration date is when the dividend is announced by the company or, more specifically, the company’s board. This information is often published and includes the amount, the record date, and the payment date.
The record date is the cutoff date to determine which shareholders are eligible to receive the announced dividend. This date is when the company must have listed as a shareholder to receive the just-announced dividend. If the company does not have you recorded as a shareholder, then you will not receive the dividend.
The ex-dividend date is the day when dividend eligibility expires. A shareholder must own the stock before the ex-dividend date to receive the announced dividend. Typically, this is one business day before the record date. This date was changed in September 2017 from two days before the record date to one day. If you purchase a stock on or after the ex-dividend date you will not receive the dividend. Instead, the seller will receive the dividend. This one day gives time for records to be updated. Interestingly, the ex-dividend date is set by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission or ‘SEC’ and not the company.
The dividend payment also impacts the share price by usually reducing it by the amount of the dividend on the ex-dividend date. The drop in stock price occurs since the dividend represents a transfer of assets from the company to the shareholder, reducing market capitalization. This action adjusts market value downward to account for the reduction in assets. A regular dividend is a cash payment to shareholders and impacts free cash flow because the share price of a stock reflects the future cash flows from dividends.
The payment date is when the company distributes the dividend to shareholders eligible to receive the dividend. The payment date is typically two to four weeks after the record date.
Let us use Coca-Cola’s recent announcement as an example. Coca-Cola declared a $0.42 per share quarterly dividend on February 18th. The ex-dividend date is March 12th, about one month later. The record date is March 15th. The payment date is April 1st. As an aside, this was the 59th consecutive annual increase for the Dividend King. The new dividend was a 2.4% increase from the old dividend.
Do I Need To Pay Tax On Dividends?
The short answer is “Yes.” The IRS considers the dividend to be income. This fact is the case even if you reinvest all your dividends through a direct reinvestment plan or ‘DRIP’ back into the same company. Despite being considered income, dividends can be taxed at a lower rate than your regular income if a qualified dividend. This is because qualified dividends are taxed at the long-term capital gains rate. Ordinary or non-qualified dividends are taxed at your regular income tax rate, typically higher. For example, distributions from REITs, MLPs, and some other types of special entities are not considered qualified dividends.
What is a qualified dividend? To be considered a qualified dividend, the dividend must meet the following criteria:
- Paid by a U.S. company or a company in U.S. possession
- Paid by a foreign company residing in a country that is eligible for benefits under a U.S. tax treaty
- Paid by a foreign company that can be easily traded on a major U.S. stock market
- The stock must have been held for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning 60 days before the ex-dividend date
You should receive a Form 1099-DIV from your brokerage that states whether a dividend is qualified or ordinary. If you own shares in an MLP partnership, your dividend will be reported on a Schedule K-1.
Dividend Tax Rates
The differences in dividend tax rates can be significant, especially at high incomes, which is one of the essential benefits of owning stocks that pay dividends. Nevertheless, it is clear from the two tables below that owning dividend-paying stocks has benefits compared to regular income. The table below shows the dividend tax rate for single filers in 2021. The rates will remain the same in 2022, but the income thresholds will increase slightly to account for inflation.
|Tax Bracket||Tax Rate on Regular Income||Tax Rate on Qualified Dividends|
|$9,951 to $40,400||12%||0%|
|$40,401 to $40,525||12%||15%|
|$40,526 to $86,375||22%||15%|
|$86,376 to $164,925||24%||15%|
|$164,925 to $209,425||32%||15%|
|$209,426 to $445,850||35%||15%|
|$445,851 to $523,600||35%||20%|
The table below shows the tax rate for joint filers in 2021. The rates will remain the same in 2022, but the income thresholds will increase slightly to account for inflation.
|Tax Bracket||Tax Rate on Regular Income||Tax Rate on Qualified Dividends|
|$19,901 to $80,800||12%||0%|
|$80,801 to $81,050||12%||15%|
|$81,051 to $172,750||22%||15%|
|$172,751 to $329,850||24%||15%|
|$329,851 to $418,850||32%||15%|
|$418,851 to $501,600||35%||15%|
|$501,601 to $628,300||35%||20%|
There are two primary metrics for dividends: dividend yield and payout ratio. Of course, there are other metrics and calculations, but these are the two most fundamental.
The dividend yield shows the annual rate of return that a shareholder receives from the dividend. It is a measure of valuation since it depends on the share price. Hence, it is a way to measure the return of the dividend of any new purchase. The dividend yield is determined using the following equation:
Divided Yield (%) = Annual Dividend Per Share / Stock Price Per Share * 100%
The payout ratio is an indication of dividend safety and the financial condition of the company. It depends on annual earnings. If the dividend takes is too high a percentage of the earnings, it is likely not safe. Dividend payout ratios over 100% mean that the earnings do not cover the dividend payout. The following equation calculates the dividend yield:
Payout Ratio (%) = Total Annual Dividend / Total Net Income * 100%
Which Companies Pay Dividends?
Typically, large established companies with stable earnings and cash flow pay dividends. But established small-cap or mid-cap companies with similar characteristics may also pay dividends. In addition, companies in specific sectors tend to pay dividends more often. These sectors include consumer staples, utilities, oil and gas majors, financials, and healthcare. Consumers staples companies and utilities are favorites of investors seeking dividends. For example, Coca-Cola (K.O.) has paid a growing dividend for 58 years. The current dividend yield is approximately 3.5%. The combination of dividend yield, dividend growth, and some capital appreciation has been very popular for dividend growth investors.
Companies structured as master limited partnerships or ‘MLPs’ pay a particular type of dividend called a distribution since they must do so. MLPs are typically pipeline companies and are referred to as midstream companies. They store and transport oil, natural gas, and chemicals. MLPs are pass-through entities, so they are not the same as regular corporations. Instead, MLPs pass through cash flow as distributions. This fact means that MLPs are highly deponent on the capital markets for funding growth. In other words, they must issue new debt and equity to fund growth. MLPs also pass-through tax obligations since they do not pay corporate taxes. Hence, the tax treatment of the distributions from MLPs is more complex than a regular corporation. The MLP will send an annual K-1 form. There are other complexities and risks for MLPs that make them very different than regular C-corporations that pay dividends. MLPs are not for everyone, and you should research them in greater detail.
Companies structured as real estate investment trusts or ‘REITs’ also pay dividends. REITs are also pass-through entities. They pay no federal income tax as long as the REIT pays out at least 90% of its taxable income as dividends to its investors. For this reason, REITs are also dependent on capital markets to fund future growth. They must issue new debt or additional equity to fund acquisitions or new projects. Dividends from REITs are not qualified. This fact means that they are taxed at your highest income tax rate. There are many different types of REITs are some are riskier than others. Some, such as mortgage REITs or mREITs, are very sensitive to interest rate fluctuation are entail more risk and complexity. The stock performance varied significantly during the Great Recession from 2007 – 2009. Further, up to 30% suspended or cut their dividend or paid the dividend in stock during the Great Recession. REITs are also not for everyone, and you should research them in greater detail.
Start-ups and high-growth companies that do not have positive earnings or have negative cash flow typically do not pay dividends.
What is A REIT?
A real estate investment trust or ‘REIT’ is a corporation that owns, operates, or finances income-generating real estate. A REIT’s stock is usually publicly traded on stock exchanges. So, in this way, small investors can invest in the commercial real estate market without having large amounts of their capital.
To qualify as a REIT, a company must own real estate that generates income distributed to shareholders. Specifically, according to Investopedia, a REIT must
- Invest at least 75% of total assets in real estate, cash, or U.S. Treasuries
- Derive at least 75% of gross income from rents, interest on mortgages that finance real property, or real estate sales
- Pay a minimum of 90% of taxable income in the form of shareholder dividends each year
- Be an entity that’s taxable as a corporation
- Be managed by a board of directors or trustees
- Have at least 100 shareholders after its first year of existence
- Have no more than 50% of its shares held by five or fewer individuals
Dividend Growth Stocks
This blog and focus have been, for the most part, dividend growth stocks. These are stocks that pay a growing dividend over time. There are several advantages and risks to dividend growth investing. This type of stock is categorized by the consecutive number of years that a company pays a growing dividend.
Companies that have done so for 50+ years are referred to as Dividend Kings. Companies that have paid an increasing dividend for 25+ years are known as Dividends Champions. Those that have increased the dividend for 10 – 24 years are called Dividend Contenders. Lastly, companies that have raised the dividend for 5 – 9 years are known as Dividend Challengers.
It is not a small matter to get to the 50+ year mark. There were only 36 companies on the list at the start of 2021. This small number is out of over 6,000 companies listed on U.S. public exchanges (NASDAQ and NYSE) at the end of 2021. So, this is a pretty select group. Many companies struggle to even make it to 25 years due to recessions, competition, and in some cases, poor management decisions. Take a look at the articles listing the dividend stocks in the different categories mentioned above.
For U.S. stocks, I have articles on the
- List of Dividend Kings in 2022
- List of Dividend Aristocrats in 2022
- List of Dividend Champions in 2022
- List of Dividend Contenders in 2022
- List of Dividend Challengers in 2022
- Dogs of the Dow in 2022
For Canadian stocks, I have an article on the
For U.K. stocks, I have an article on the
Other dividend stock lists
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Dividends Can Be Used to Determine Valuation
Dividends can be used to determine valuation—the Gordon Growth Model value stocks based on constant dividend growth rates. The Gordon Growth Model (GGM) or the Dividend Growth Model is used to determine the value of a stock based on the current dividend per share and its expected constant growth rate. The Model calculates the intrinsic or fair value of a stock, and thus it ignores current market conditions. This model is a simplified version of the Dividend Discount Model.
The Gordon Growth Model provides a relatively quick and straightforward way of determining stock valuation with only knowledge of the dividend per share, an expected rate of return, and the expected dividend growth rate. There are some limitations to the Model, and you can check the more in-depth article about those. Still, it works reasonably well for mature companies with relatively predictable and stable dividend growth rates. However, one should always compare the results of this Model with other valuation methods.
Why Dividends Matter to Small Investors?
What are the benefits of dividends? Dividends are passive income based on an initial investment by investors. A small investor can use the distribution for multiple purposes, including reinvestment in the same stock, investment in another stock, spending, and other purposes. Reinvesting dividends in the same stock is a powerful method to build wealth by compounding. This combination of reinvesting the dividend and incrementally buying additional shares in stock is referred to as a dividend growth investing strategy. Since you are reading my blog, you are likely aware of how compounding works for regular savings accounts. But it can also work for dividend stocks through dividend growth investing.
Dividend are an Indicator of Financial Health
The first benefit of dividends is that they are an indicator of the financial health of the company. In general, a dividend requires a company to have positive earnings and cash. From this perspective, dividends cannot be gamed by corporations. Companies can only pay the dividend so long if it is not covered by earnings or cash flow. If earnings and cash flow do not cover the dividend, the dividend can be cut or suspended. For instance, during periods of financial distress, e.g., the COVID-19 pandemic or a sub-prime mortgage crisis, dividends were cut and suspended by many companies. Furthermore, a company that consistently raises the dividend annually usually grows top and bottom lines over time.
Dividend Contribution To Total Return
The second benefit of dividends is that they have provided a significant percentage of total return over extended periods, as seen in the chart below. It is roughly 41% of total returns for the S&P 500 from 1930 to 2020. The actual percentage that dividends contribute to total varies per decade. It was as high as 73% in the 1970s. However, it was as low as 16% in the 1990s. This was a period dominated by relatively new and rapidly growing tech and telecom stocks. At that time, these stocks did not pay a dividend. As a result, in the 2000s, the S&P 500 had a negative total return, but dividends offset price declines.
Average Annual Returns and Volatility by Dividend Policy
Importantly dividend payers and dividend growers tend to provide better market returns with lower volatility in aggregate, which is the third benefit of dividends. According to Ned Davis Research and Hartford Funds, from 1973 – 2020, dividend growers and initiators had an average annual return of 13.20% with a beta of 0.88 and a standard deviation of 16.08%. Dividend payers provided an average annual return of 12.83% with a beta of 0.94 and a standard deviation of 16.81%. This is much better than companies that do not change dividend policy, pay a dividend, or cut or eliminate a dividend, as seen in the table below.
Dividend Provide Protection in Downmarket
Another reason why dividends matter to investors is that it provides downside protection during a declining market. This fact has been shown in a scientific study by two authors. They concluded that dividend-paying stocks outperform stocks that do not pay dividends by 1% to 2% per month in declining markets than in advancing markets. Their results were statistically significant. They also found that dividend increases matter more in declining markets than in advancing markets.
The presence of the dividend, though, and not the dividend yield itself, drive returns in declining markets. In addition, dividend stocks outperformed those that do not pay a dividend in both the dot-com and sub-prime mortgage crisis. So, this is the fourth benefit of dividends.
Qualified Dividends are Taxed at a Lower Rate
A significant advantage or benefit of dividend investing is that qualified dividends are taxed at a lower rate than your regular income. You can see in the table above that the differences in tax rates for high-income earners can be considerable. It is for this reason that dividend investing strategies are probably prevalent now.
For example, if you have a $1 million portfolio and generate $30,000 in qualified dividends, a single filer’s tax rate was 0% in 2019. However, that same $30,000 in a regular salary is taxed at 12% or $3,600. That’s a pretty big difference.
Final Thoughts on Why Dividends Matter for Investors
You can see that dividends matter for small investors. Dividends have several benefits for investors, and that has been known back for hundreds of years. First, dividends can be a significant component of total return. This fact has been shown in the backtesting of different categories of stocks. Dividends provide income. Dividends also provide downside protection in a declining market, which has been shown in published research. Finally, dividends are also an indicator of the financial health of a company. Overall, there should be no doubt that dividends matter and are a benefit to small investors.
Thanks for reading about the benefits of dividends and Why Dividend Matter for Investors!
Disclosure: Long KO and COST.
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